Copyright: How Protected is it?

Image taken from http://copyrighttoolkit.com

You already own your own copyright, right? Ever wondered how much of someone else’s work you can fairly copy? What about the other way round, when someone has copied not just the idea, but how you’ve said it?

Copyright regimes in most countries of the world, including the US since 1989, give automatic protection. Most countries have signed either the Berne Convention or Universal Copyright Convention (UCC) or both. In the US and Britain you own the copyright without having to register or comply with formalities. If you don’t want your copyright, opt out. In practice, it is easier to use Larry Lessig’s brainchild, the Creative Commons Licence so others may use your work. Should you not do that, in the UK and the USA copyright lasts for your lifetime plus seventy years. (This is true for literary, dramatic, musical or artistic works. Computer generated work is copyrighted for fifty years from creation.)

It’s not necessary to use the © copyright symbol, year of publication and name of the copyright holder. But it’s a good habit to get into and is needed in those states who are members of the UCC but not of the Berne Convention. It also helps assert your moral rights, which is why book authors add: ‘Writer’s Name. Author asserts his/her moral right to be identified as the author of this book’.

So, what economic rights do you enjoy as a copyright holder? Four.

  • Exclusive right to reproduce the copyrighted work
  • Exclusive right to make modifications of the copyrighted work, commonly known as the right to make derivative works
  • The right to control distribution, exportation and importation of copies of the work
  • The right to control public performances or public displays of the work.

In 1963 a song called, ‘He’s So Fine’ written by Ronald Mack, was performed by The Chiffons. Beatles member, George Harrison, heard the song, but wasn’t aware that it had registered in his creative neurons. Six years later he composed, ‘My Sweet Lord,’ a remarkably similar tune. Bright Tunes Music, Mack’s assignee, sued Harrison and won. It was accepted that Harrison hadn’t copied it deliberately, but he still lost.

It is said that there are only seven themes for novels, so how comes we can copy a theme and get away with it, but not copy a tune and a few lyrics? The short answer is that ideas and facts cannot be protected by copyright. What is protected is their expression.

So, what do you do if you are sure someone has copied your work? Well, you prove it. But Michael Crichton was constantly accused of stealing someone else’s work and, as far as I’m aware, never lost a law suit.

How to prove it: Four techniques, but all must result in a fixed copy of the work being available.

  • Introduce direct evidence of copying.
  • Show how your work was widely available and point out the similarities between your work and the alleged copy of your work, as happened with George Harrison. (Probative similarity.)
  • Striking similarity. Too much to be a coincidence, regardless of how likely it is that lots of people must have heard or read it. This point and the one above are often bundled together.
  • Common Errors. For example, travel guides have been known to deliberately include fictitious hotels that are also copied by the unscrupulous. Sometimes the mistakes and typo’s really are unintentional, but repeated in the copied work and used to show how it must be copied.

Cablevision is a leading case in US law which highlights the differences between digital and hard copy. Where there’s no copy there’s no offence. It seems to work a bit like FilmOn TV, a US registered company which allows viewers in Spain to watch British TV over the internet. The key legal point is that they violate the US Copyright Statute but can be excused under the US Fair Use Doctrine. This is because a single stream of data is split, buffered, reformatted and stored. Data is not kept for longer than 0.1 of a second before sending it to a server which has a further buffer that again does not hold the information for long, never more than 1.2 seconds of programming at any one time. The US Court of Appeal found in the Cablevision case that no copy was ever made, because to do so would require ‘a period of more than transitory duration.’

Hmmm.

Cases like Cablevision are rare. It is much more common to fight over whether the character and amount copied infringes the copyright.

In 1930 a US Judge, Learned Hand, (that really was his name), devised a test to apply when one literary work was too close to that of another. He said, ‘we are rather concerned with the line between expression and what is expressed.’

Fair Use and Fair Dealing

The US has the Fair Use Doctrine, Brits have Fair Dealing and both defences allow research and private study, criticism or review, or news reporting.

But What Isn’t Fair?

Factors that have been identified by the courts as relevant include:

  • does using the work affect the market for the original work? If a use of a work acts as a substitute for it, causing the owner to lose revenue, then it is not likely to be fair
  • is the amount of the work taken reasonable and appropriate? Was it necessary to use the amount that was taken? Usually only part of a work may be used.

Justice Petersen presided over a leading case in England in 1916 and said, ‘what is worth copying is prima facie worth protecting.’ His words have been used ever since.

In Britain, legislators deem less than 400 words of continuous text or 800 non continuous excerpts to be fair. (The 10% rule is more of an urban legend in the UK). Obviously, if someone were to ruin the story  in a whodunnit in just a few words this would not be fair.

Licence to Photocopy

In the UK , the Copyright Licensing Agency sells the right to photocopy parts of a work.

It licenses:

  • Either 5 per cent or one chapter, whichever is greater
  • Periodicals. One article from any one issue
  • A short story or poem not exceeding 10 pages in length.

http://www.cla.co.uk/

An excellent website is http://copyrighttoolkit.com

When permission is required, check out the Writers Artists and Their Copyright Holders database. It can save a lot of time. http://norman.hrc.utexas.edu/watch/

Hope this helps,

Tracy Thomson
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Self-Publishing. A plan means you can.

Mainstream Publishers are more than just middlemen in the contract between author and reader. Publishers take the writer’s work and add to it creating more value in the final book. After all, a large Publisher has to report to shareholders and create profit for everyone involved, including itself- so that it may pay its staff and carry on. Costs include the advance that was given to the author: recouping this is not always possible and where there is a limited number of sales, some published authors receive only their advance.

As Clark and Phillips point out[1], traditionally, a Publisher’s role is all encompassing.

‘The publisher, aiming to make a profit for the owners/shareholders and to carry on publishing:

  • researches the markets in which it specializes and builds contacts,
  • seeks authors (in competition with other publishers) and is sought by them,
  • matches marketable ideas to saleable authors,
  • assesses the quality of the author’s work (sometimes externally refereed), costs of production and sales prospects,
  • decides whether to risk its investment funds in projects to appear under its brand,
  • edits and designs books to meet market needs,
  • specifies, buys and oversees the work of print suppliers (in the UK or abroad) which manufacture the books,
  • exploits new technology to reduce costs and stock levels, develop new products, and expand its sales and marketing techniques,
  • builds a worldwide sales network,
  • promotes and publicizes books to their intended users, the media, and to the intermediaries (retailers, wholesalers, and overseas firms) – the channels through which the books are mainly sold,
  • sells the books face-to-face to intermediaries,
  • holds bulk stock of titles, where necessary, to satisfy demand, and
  • fulfils orders, distributes the books and collects the money, paying royalties to authors on sales made.’

When you are the Publisher you compete, then, against a well-oiled machine and Print on Demand (POD) is often the only feasible option for you. POD costs more per book but is cheaper in the short term for small prints. Off-set is for much larger volumes and the price per unit savings arguably only become worth it when distribution and storage are already part of the printing process.

There is nothing in theory to stop you Self-Publishing and going for, say, a 1,000 book off-set print, but factor in the storing and distributing of those boxes. Don’t let the damp and mildew get at them.

This is not to say you cannot go it alone, but you need to be aware of your aims and the target market before you begin. One business model is to garner sales of an EBook before moving on to the next step, that of ordering and distributing the POD books into book stores.

One major player that still prefers the Mainstream to the Self-Published is the Bookseller. This person also needs to survive and one traditional distribution method involves a ‘sale or return’ policy. Ingram Sparks has tried to plug the ‘delivery and returns’ gap. If you publish with them they operate a distribution and collection policy which can help persuade the Bookseller to stock the book, although a professional cover is also important. Ingram Spark’s ‘sale or return’ works better logistically for US based Self-Publishers, and I’ll explain why. You can opt to have the book physically returned, paying for the price of the book and $2 delivery costs. Or you can have the book returned by the Bookseller, then destroyed, by Ingram Sparks and only pay for the cost of the book printing. In theory the same arrangement exists for non US addresses. But with each book costing $20 return delivery on top of paying the book price, there is really only the option of asking Ingram Sparks to destroy it on return.

Do not despair- should you choose to go it alone build a social media platform, market your book online, show proof of sales, line your pockets and then go for the POD with all its distribution wizardry. And who knows, a Mainstream Publisher may just come a knocking.

When you compete with the professionals make sure your copy is professional too. Don’t invest in a decent cover and opt for a sale or return plan only to get rejected by Booksellers because of grammatical and structural errors. Pay for a copyedit. Or if you can’t afford it, learn how to do it yourself: brush up on grammar rules, understand copyediting conventions and don’t cobble together various parts written at various times in various moods and voices. Not if you want only one voice and for that to come across well to the reader.

By the way,  can you see the ant in the title image?

Copyright 2014 Tracy Thomson

[1] Inside Book Publishing. Fourth edition, Routledge (2008)

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Get On Board the Self Publishing Train.

A station master stands, whistle in hand, ‘This train for e-books and print. Stopping at Amazon, Penguin Random House, Bowker and Ingram. Please check announcements for all other destinations as platforms may change from those advertised.’

First, it was a world where many books on a publishers back list fell out of print because too few could be sold to warrant a costly reprint. Mid-listers used to be carried by the 10% or so of Publishing House successes. Literary Agents almost never had conflicts of interest, because they never involved themselves in the actual publishing. Then things changed.

Lines were drawn in the sand. Short-Run Digital Printing, e‑books, dedicated readers and multi-tasking tablets on the one side. Offset, and later, Print on Demand (POD) on the other. That was back when e‑book sales were still an unknown quantity, when Mid-listers, their Agents and Publishers all remained loyal, when traditional and digital did not talk to each other.

It is no longer believed that the print and digital worlds run on different gauge railway tracks for printing, distribution and marketing and that ne’er the two shall meet. The market has evolved to a more mature one where it is possible to share, now that, best sellers apart, there is more predictability. So who do you opt for?

Certainly, some hybrids are on board the publishing train, they bring with them existing databases and/or distribution channels that seem to offer a better chance to Self-Published writers to grab market share.

Amazon, for one, has a comprehensive business strategy that must be acknowledged. It is the clear digital leader, 67% of e-book buyers go there first according to Book Industry Study Group, (BISG), and it uses its database of purchasers to great effect. Its knowledge is added to by BookScan sending its print data. This is, of course, a non-reciprocal arrangement, but something Amazon authors can access through Author Central. In addition, Amazon even reaches out to agents with its White Glove Program, (WGP). And, as we all know, the Self-Publishing market is definitely expanding – a 59% increase in US sales says Bowker. Newbies can employ Solutions Providers or go it alone as can Mid‑listers, if not lured by their agents to the WGP. More of this, later.

In the ISBN world, Bowker seems ahead of Nielsen in its dash for market share. It has its own self-publishing platform, incorporating, interalia, Vook to publish, an android app offering 50% royalties, and a widget with ‘look inside’ capabilities to rival Amazon.

Penguin Random House also has a self-publishing vehicle: BookCountry. The self-starter pack is free, except the author hands over 15% of online sales; the same percentage applies for $59, $159, and $249 packages, respectively. Interestingly, the service costing $399 does not claw back any percentage from online sales.

Lightning Source, POD, exploits the Ingram Distribution Channel with over 30,000 wholesalers, retailers and booksellers in over 100 countries. It also offers other distribution channels and, like competing platforms, provides clients with a comprehensive portfolio of booksellers.

But Amazon’s WGP seems the only one where authors must be agent assisted. As both co-founder of a writers’ club in Sotogrande and a new novelist looking for an agent, I wanted to know more about WGP. I spoke with Nathan Rosenbaum of WGP in Seattle, ‘This program was designed exclusively for agents… to streamline the publishing process as well as provide access to various merchandising opportunities for specific titles. It allows authors to leverage the rights they control, either on backlist titles where rights have reverted to the author or frontlist titles where rights have not transferred to publishers. The agent chooses the authors and titles to be included.’

Clever. Agents, stuck with dusty Manuscripts can negotiate their own royalties with their clients who are happy and get marketed. Amazon avoids the slush pile and gets guaranteed quality both in editing of form and substance. The WGP can be used for KDP – and/or their POD, CreateSpace.

Rosenbaum continued, ‘The promotions may include targeted e-mails, various campaigns (storefront, category and detail pages) and nomination for daily deals.’

These are shared with other promotions and when asked what the ratio was, Rosenbaum, slickly, replied, ‘I do not have those figures, but clients are typically satisfied.’

Rosenbaum explained that the extent of their marketing investment would be dependent on historical sales, suggesting unpublished authors would have less marketing, but agents could enrol them. Royalties were 35% or 70%, both with one year exclusivity, and for 70% the e‑book would be priced by Amazon for between $2.99 – $9.99 and 20% below print price. It also injects quality control. If you  are with an agent and have not yet had a Publisher take up your book, consider this option.

Not so long ago, Amazon, WH Smith, Barnes & Noble and Nook were red-faced over the sale of digital and print books that contravened their terms and conditions by glorifying rape and extreme violence. Apparently, they slipped through the post publication net. Digital printing allows instantaneous edits after the product is put on sale and after the on-line printers can be reasonably expected to police the quality and content. Another problem is vanity publishing sharks have reinvented themselves as Solutions Providers or POD Independents, making it hard to tell the goodies from the baddies. Readers and authors need protecting, but how?

Literary Agents and Publishing Houses could never provide editing services for Self-Publishers without seeming to promote the books, which is a shame as such edits would provide readers with the confidence to purchase. Readers are drawn to well edited, self-published books, but it takes time to find them. Typos, grammar mistakes and conflicting points of view sometimes make finishing a book impossible. If you Self-Publish, pay for a professional edit and tell your reader who edited it; force the paid editors to shoulder some of the responsibility.

Professional editing can make the difference in the Self‑Publishing world and once the sales show there is money to be made from what you have written, a well edited book can also attract a big Publishing House with deep pockets for marketing that could cover far more than a Self-Publishing/Indie Publishing blog page.

Copyright Tracy Thomson

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‘Fetch, Boy’ How not to lose your VOICE when editing.

Dexter Petley

Take your time

The second blog of the month is by Dexter Petley, a successful author who also works as an editor and adviser for new writers.

Amongst his acclaimed works are a literary noir whodunnit, Little Nineveh (Polygon 1995), Joyride (Fourth Estate, 1999), and White Lies (Fourth Estate 2003). He’s a regular on the cult website www.caughtbytheriver.com

TIME AND MOTION

Time is the novel’s greatest enemy.  The time it takes, the time it occupies and even the time it represents.  We often read that so and so is a “full-time” writer.  And then we read their novels and wonder why, therefore, they didn’t take that luxury of available time to get it right instead of rushing it out.  I don’t know if it’s rat-race ethics or just the cruise control on the Microsoft treadmill, but when I urge clients to take their time on the re-write they seem to hear a starting pistol.  Three weeks later, whizz-bang-pop, they send me a wonky new version that’s still smoking.

There are very understandable reasons for attempting to write faster than your own shadow.  Encouragement is a wonderful thing.  It’s a life-saver to the struggling writer.  When it appears, we tend to think of it as fickle, ephemeral, a light which will fade.  Struggling writers are not used to attention.  So when we get it, we act like dogs chasing a stick.

In my own apprentice days I too was eager and trigger happy.  I can categorically say it got me nowhere.  It merely rejected the encouragement given by ignoring the details, the small print, the wisdom.  I had all the time in the world too; in the 1980s you wrote novels on the dole, hammering holes in scrap-paper on great iron framed machines. 

Time has not changed; the time a novel needs to be written doesn’t change.  Whatever you hear, the ability to rattle off twenty-thousand words a day is no more useful than being a pie eating champion.   What may have changed is that today we can write at miraculous, reckless speeds.   But it’s like writing on a simulator.  Cut and paste is an illusion.  When I say re-write, I mean word by word, sentence by sentence.

Why, when much of the novel might remain unaltered?

Well, the same reason a singer performs the whole song night after night.  Voice, and because there is no short cut to the whole story.

In the typewriter age we had no choice.  It was an honest job, typing; we sculpted those damned novels with bleeding fingers.  But the beauty of it was the focus and concentration to be had; the intimacy we had with our text.  The tactile engagement we had with our craft.  We felt like writers, not IT users.  That craft, the progress of it, was visible and satisfying.  I fear that’s missing these days.  You’re supposed to be writing, but between sentences there’s shopping on Ebay, someone’s cursed Youtube link, an email to read…  In other words, it’s not just distraction, it’s squandering the writing time.  It shows up in the finished work.  Making up time with cut and paste or a few days spilling the midnight oil is no substitute for the slow fuse, the whole song. 

Re-writing a novel from scratch is to reclaim it.  Just fixing the leaks doesn’t prevent it caving in later.  In typewriter mode (unplug the bloody modem at least) you recover the voice, and control the dogs pulling at your leash.  Suddenly a year is well spent.  And it should be a year at least.  Good fiction needs time in the bottle before drinking.  That time includes, just as essentially, time off; time for gaining distance and a cold heart, or just forgetting.  It takes me between 5-10 years to write a novel.  In that time there might be 14 drafts of the word for word kind.  Each novel leapfrogs over the other, so one novel finally come out every four years. 

The simplest advice is often the best: don’t ignore professional advice for a start.  Take your time.  If you haven’t time, all the more reason.  I know many writers have full-time jobs or demanding commitments which make writing time a rare luxury.  The temptation to be over-productive is an attractive one.  It so easily becomes a race with time.  When a novel is finished, no one will praise it because you bashed out the first draft in 3 months and the re-write in a week.  Remember, a novel is a two headed monster.  The first breathes white heat, sleepless nights, death-pacts with the muse.  The second is a cold blooded surgeon, a waiting game, the playing hard to get.  Successful writers have two heads; they’re the difference between interesting and great.

Dexter Petley

Reblogged from http://www.writersworkshop.co.uk/blog/time-motion-by-dexter-petley/
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“She’s not a stranger; I’ve read her book.”

She's not a stranger; I've read her book

She’s not a stranger; I’ve read her book

Our guest blog this month comes from Caro Clarke, author of ‘Furry Dice Chewing Gum’. She reflects upon the writer’s voice and what makes us who we are. As they say in Thailand, ‘Same, same but different…’

Writing: It’s Personal

‘When I was a girl, back in the time of cave painting and discovering fire, I learned penmanship, and the teacher expected all of us to write our letters exactly the same. And yet, graphologists say that our handwriting reveals who we are, the aspects about ourselves that we know and don’t want to tell, or aspects we might not even know. We cannot help revealing ourselves in what we shape with our hands and minds, and why shouldn’t we? Isn’t penmanship the way we communicate ourselves to the world?

 

As with handwriting, so with fiction writing. When we tell stories, we are not just telling a story, we are telling our readers about ourselves. One of the reviewers of my first novel let me stay in her house while she was away. She had never met me (we arranged it via email) and, when her friends said, scandalised, “You’re letting a stranger stay at your house?!?” she replied “She’s not a stranger; I’ve read her book.”

 

When we find out that the author of a particularly beloved novel was not, in fact, a lovely person, I think we sometimes question our faith, but often we decide that the author’s “better angel” did exist, but only existed when he or she was writing. I have known writers of very moving or funny books who were dull or morose in real life — until they did something (shelter a moth from harm’s way, suddenly cap a joke) that revealed the secret angel of their nature, that wellspring from which their books flowed.

 

We write who we are. What we choose to write is shaped by more than the specific inspiration (that headline, that family myth, that half-memory), but by the complete connection of ourselves to our world. This is something that we can’t help doing and what we must do. We must be ourselves, must be true to ourselves. The world doesn’t want another Atwood or Patterson or Lethem, it wants something new — and we are that something new.

 

What we bring to a story no one else will bring. We are each of us unique, and unique always sells. As a former fiction editor, and as someone who has worked with literary agents, I constantly said, and heard said, “What’s different about this? What’s its USP (unique selling point)?” It was never just the amazing plot-twist or the unusual setting or the brilliant evocation of time, but what I can only call “personality”. The book “had” something. It wasn’t a pile of paper, it was a creation.

 

I am not convinced by software programmes that will “teach you to write.” They might teach you to structure and improve sentences, but they can’t bring creation to a story. They can’t make the best-structured narrative come alive. Only your mind can do that. Only your heart can do that. How you write might be unusual. I know an author who writes on sticky notes in very tiny letters. He finds it easier to do micro-writing and then use a wall to assemble his book. I know another author who plots for two years, and then writes one single finished draft in three months. A friend of mine will only write in certain kinds of notebooks (unfortunately, these come from France, so how lucky that his books sell well).

 

I would worry if there was only one way to write. That isn’t how anything works, except perhaps for robots putting silicon chips into a hard drive. There might be a “best way” to brush your teeth or to apply bathroom tiles, but not when it comes to tapping into the mysteries of creation. I have mentioned wellsprings. I believe that we each have our own depth of wisdom, joy, anger, bitterness and fear that we draw on, only half-consciously, when in the grip of our story. How can that ever come forth in the same way from every heart and mind?

 

How we write is an expression of what our books will be. I myself write my first two or three drafts in pen in notebooks. I then type in, amending as I go, and then grind through a number of drafts either on-screen, or in print-out, hand-writing changes and typing them in after every go-through. I have done as few as four drafts, and as many as fourteen. Whatever it takes to make it right. And I think my stories reflect this. They are considered. They are (I hope) thought through. They are certainly felt through. They might not be great stories, but I have had readers’ comments back, and it seems that I connect in a particular way with particular people. That’s all I ask.

 

Would my way of writing work for anyone else? Yes, I’ve met many writers who find that the book becomes itself, creates itself, only in the last few of its many rewrites, but this is because that’s who we are. Our books are good on the little details, the small touches, because we work at that level. Others don’t sweat that small stuff; they do the sweeping narratives, the sagas, the larger-than-life characters, because that’s who they are. Even if they seem small on the outside.

 

Nobody is small who wants to write. Nobody can be small when they want to reach out to the world with a story in their hands, that thing that might become eternal, as Homer’s stories, as Shakespeare’s as Twain’s, have become immortal. How can it be taught, this impulse, this need to create? Like water from a high source, it will come down the mountain and cross the valley by the path it wants to take, must take, to reach its sea.

 

Who are you? What makes you write what you write? What makes you write how you write? Whatever it is, if you are producing living creations, then it is right for you.

 

And who cares about your penmanship.

www.caroclarke.com

© Caro Clarke All Rights Reserved.
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Furry Dice Chewing Gum – Problems for New Writers

Beginners’ four faults

As an editor, I know when I am reading someone’s first novel. I have nicknames for the four give-away faults beginners make: (1) Walk and Chew Gum (2) Furry Dice (3) Tea, Vicar? (4) Styrofoam. I see at least one of these in every manuscript where the author has not mastered the craft of writing before submitting his or her work. What are these four faults and, more importantly, how can you cure them?

(1) Walk and Chew Gum
The writer has not integrated action and dialogue, internal monologue and action, or internal monologue with dialogue. It is as if the characters can do only one thing at a time. An example:

    “If you think you’re going to town you’d better thing again,” said Ralph.
    He put down his can of beer.
    “I’m not having any daughter of mine going to a Cantrell boy’s party, and that’s final!”
    “Oh, Pa! How could you be so cruel!” JoBeth cried.
    Then, hunting in her pockets for a tissue, she dried her eyes and stared at him defiantly.
    “If I want to go, how can you stop me?” she demanded.
    Ralph knew this would happen. She had always been independent, like her mother. He half-lurched to his feet.
    “You little hussy!” he bellowed.
    Running up the stairs, JoBeth turned at the landing.
    “I am going, do you hear? I am.”

Not integrating action and dialogue makes for jerky, lifeless prose. Combine, combine, toujours combine:

    “If you think you’re going to town you’d better think again,” Ralph snapped, putting down his can of beer. She was too damn much like her mother. “I’m not having any daughter of mine going to a Cantrell boy’s party, and that’s final!”
    “Oh, Pa! How could you be so cruel!” JoBeth hunted her pockets for a tissue, dried her eyes and stared at him defiantly. “If I want to go, how can you stop me?”
    Ralph half-lurched to his feet, bellowing, “You little hussy!” But JoBeth was already upstairs. “I am going, do you hear? I am.”

This might not be award-winning prose, but it reflects the reality of the action and feelings better by having action, thought and dialogue knitted together.

(2) Furry Dice
Adjectives, adverbs and prepositions are furry dice hanging from a car’s mirror. They don’t do anything for the car’s performance, they simply clutter the place. I once stripped a fifth of a novel by removing words and phrases such as ‘very’ ‘up’ ‘down’ ‘over’ ‘about’ ‘some’ ‘a little’ ‘a bit’ ‘somewhat’ ‘whole’ ‘just’ and other modifiers. For instance:

    She picked up the gun and aimed it straight at him. His smile disappeared as he lifted up his hands into the air. She waved him over to the wall, saying, “Spread ’em out, and no funny business, you hear?” She checked all of his pockets for the money, then stepped back. “Okay, I’m convinced. You haven’t got it.”

This would be better without the modifiers, and with the tighter language you’ll have to write to replace them:

    She snatched the gun and aimed. His smile disappeared as his hands climbed. She waved him to the wall, saying, “Spread ’em, and no funny business, you hear?” She checked his pockets for the money, then retreated. “Okay, I’m convinced. You don’t have it.”

59 words have become 44, and even then the passage could be trimmed. But the first, necessary action, before you seriously begin to rewrite, is to grab that swimming pool net and remove clogging, unnecessary modifiers that muddy the water. Hemingway didn’t need them; you don’t need them.

(3) Tea, Vicar?

    “More tea, Vicar?” Angela asked, taking his cup and placing it on the tray beside her.
    “Don’t mind if I do,” said the Rev. Phelps.
    “That was two sugars, wasn’t it?” she asked, pouring the fragrant liquid from the heirloom pot into his cup and stirring in the milk. When he nodded, she dropped in two sugar lumps, stirred again, and handed him back the cup.
    “Thank you, my dear,” he said, accepting it with a smile.

How often have I read loving descriptions of cups of tea being poured, pots of coffee being made, even whole meals cooked and eaten? Or rooms cleaned or decorated, or journeys made? Too darn often. Writers get a high out of conjuring a tableau from thin air, and in the white heat of creation forget that tableaux of mundane details are not exciting. The reader will not share that euphoria.

Reading about a cup of tea being poured is about as exciting as watching paint dry. How does this scene help further the plot or character development? It doesn’t. The writer simply got carried away with describing everything. Fiction is supposed to be like life, but with the dull bits removed, not spelled out in excruciating detail. Examine your work. Test every scene. Is there anything that you think of as ‘setting the scene’ or ‘capturing the atmosphere’? If there is, cut it. Every scene needs conflict and movement to give it life, and tea for the Vicar has neither.

(4) Styrofoam
This is related to Tea, Vicar?, but it arises not from self-indulgence, but panic. Styrofoam is the padding novice writers stuff into their novels because they haven’t enough story to tell (or think they don’t) and need to create word count. Padding is distinguishable because suddenly the forward movement of the story stops dead. Nothing happens for a few pages. I read, I read, and at the end I’ve learned nothing about the characters I needed to know, nor have the characters done anything essential to the story. Every scene has to propel the plot to the crisis that will resolve the story. Styrofoam does neither.

If you fear you haven’t enough narrative, add more conflict. Don’t give me tours of the countryside, long rambling chats, the characters making travel arrangements, or any other lifeless block of prose. I want action. I want inexorable movement towards the crisis. I want to be gripped. So cut the padding. If that makes your novel too short, re-think your premise, your plot, your primary and secondary characters, and rewrite.

If you want to be published, you’ll have to cure these faults yourself, because your editor won’t do it for you. She’ll just send it back.

Copyright Caro Clarke reproduced by author’s kind permission

http://www.caroclarke.com/fourfaults.html
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Another Rejection Slip? Never Give Up, and here’s why…

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Adelaide Godwin, Author ‘Landing on my Feet. The Adventures of Poohka the Cat’

Guest blogger Adelaide Godwin talks to Tracy Thomson about the launch next month of her new children’s book.

Is this the first novel you have ever written? Yes
What about when you were younger at school?  I enjoyed writing but I am not sure the examiners felt the same when marking!
Was your first language French?  No, this is why at the age of 9, I had to start from scratch, having lessons in French and abandoning my limited knowledge of English grammar!
Did you shine at English composition or find yourself naturally more steered towards images and painting?
I loved to draw but we did not have art classes at the school.  I took my Art O Level for a joke and got an A grade. I never had any tuition until attending art classes, here, over the last 4 years. I never really shined at anything academically, I was more sporty, I like to think.
How did you conceive of the novel?  We saved a feral cat (he had been missing from our Urbanisation for a month) returning with a bad leg injury.  He is now a three legged cat living with us as part of the family.
Did you see images of a little cat and then let your imagination flow with a journey, friends and morals? Yes, my imagination took over and I set to painting his journey at my art classes.
You said you saw the book first in images and then came up with the joined up writing part, could you perhaps elaborate on that?  Once I had completed the paintings, I then put pen to paper to write the story as I imagined it.  My Publisher, Digital Leaf, said that was completely the wrong way round.
Initially you saw the reader as being older than the eventual age chosen. Yes, I thought perhaps with mentioning a cat being neutered it might be for a slightly older group.  But then again I have a talking tree! So I can see how the publisher’s thought differently. 
Did any differences between the Publisher and you cause problems?  No, I was happy to go along with whatever the publisher’s thought. I was just so pleased they were as passionate about my story as I was.
Who or what served as inspiration for you on your writing journey?  Our dear pussycat “Pooka” (Poohka in the book)  We bonded with him when he was living outside and he would walk around the Urbanisation with us on a daily basis.  So when he went missing we were most concerned for him.
How long did it take?  From starting with the paintings then the writing just under 2 years.  The actual writing took approximately 6 months, but I did not have a routine.  I wrote when I had the time and that was not as frequently as I would have liked.
Why did you decide on a nom de plume?   I always thought I should have used a different name when acting but never did, so this time I decided I would for writing. I have chosen  my grandmother’s two middle names.
I understand more than one Publisher was interested, what helped you to decide which one to go with? No only the one.  When sending off submissions I had 13 refusals but a number of them came back with complimentary responses, saying it was not for them, but someone out there will take it!  It is finding that someone, sadly they never guide you.  Anyway, I was most fortunate.
Have you started the next one yet? Yes, the first two chapters, it is just finding the time to shut myself away and get on with the rest.  I need a routine.
The publishing process can seem arduous do you have any advice for others out there who are taking their own baby steps?  Never give up.  I understand JK Rowling found an agent on her 12th attempt.  Geoffrey Archer on his 27th.  The lady who wrote The Help on her 61st attempt.  So there is hope for us all.  Basically if I can do it, anyone can.  I have absolutely no writing background at all.
What is the best approach for negotiating with the Publishers along the way vis a vis book jacket and illustrations.  I was lucky I liked the front and back cover.  The internal illustrations had to be changed because they were too English, so with a bit of coaxing and gentle persuasion they were altered.
How will you keep track of book sales? Will you access Amazon sales via the Amazon account set up or is that all being done by your Publisher?  This is all being done by the publisher. They will be sending me quarterly accounts of sales and so on.
Below is a brief bio of the author (in her own words):

Adelaide was educated at an Ursuline convent in a remote Belgian village before attending Winkfield Place Finishing School, famous as Constance Spry’s school. There she achieved a Cordon Bleu Diploma and went on to work for Prue Leith in London and as chef at the Little London Restaurant in Chichester.


Adelaide then joined British Airways and took to the skies, working as Cabin Crew for fifteen years and travelling the world extensively.


Adelaide has also worked in the television and film industry doing small acting roles, as well as some photographic and voiceover work.


She now divides her time between the UK and southern Spain where she cares for animals, writes, paints and enjoys the Mediterranean sunshine.

So with a vivid imagination Adelaide picked up a pen and a piece of paper and started to write!

The result is:

Landing on my Feet; the Adventures of Poohka the Cat by Adelaide Godwin

This is the incredible tale of Poohka a feral cat from Sotogrande who through an error of judgement ends up on a landfill site many miles away from home. Seriously injured and left for dead, this story takes you on his epic journey of survival.

With courage and determination Poohka starts his amazing journey with the assistance of some very unexpected friends he makes along the way. With highs and lows, twists and turns, the story leads you to a heart-stopping conclusion.

A taster from my book:

Chapter 2 – No place for a siesta

In August, the hottest time of the year in southern Spain, Spike sat motionless in the heat of the sun. He was perched on a decaying branch of an old cork oak tree. The week had passed too slowly for Spike, a mature and splendid looking vulture. Spike longed for Wednesdays to come around, and waited impatiently.
There was a gentle but obvious roar of a lorry in the distance. Spike jumped up, stretched his scaly neck and flexed his claws. ‘It’s coming!’ he cried joyfully.

Señor Arbol, the once majestic cork oak tree, groaned loudly. ‘For goodness’ sake, Spike, if you carry on with this behaviour you will break my weary old branch. Then you will lose your prime spot here at the rubbish tip.’

‘OK, OK!’ he yelled with excitement, struggling to contain himself. ‘I’ll try my best, but my tummy is rumbling so much, and my food is on its way!’

As if in reply, the decaying branch beneath Spike made a big creaking noise. Spike gulped and immediately stopped bouncing up and down. Spike liked his vantage point closest to the dumping area, and he’d fought hard to get this prime position. He had no intention of losing it now!

Described as:

“A roller-coaster ride of a book for young animal-lovers everywhere.”
Age: 8 +
Digital Leaf

“A claw-biting journey of bravery, persistence and unusual friendships set atmospherically in southern Spain”
Heather Hacking Bestselling Author-Illustrator

More: Poohka the Cat age 8 yrs+

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Congratulations to Susan Molbeck, Second Place in the Bootcamp Writing Competition

WHY

Sitting.  Sitting on the Esplanade.  Sitting and waiting.  Waiting for what?  If I knew the answer to that question I wouldn’t be here, I’d be far, far, away, beyond those blue hills I can see when I turn my head and look back towards the town; beyond the edge of that straight horizon directly in front; oh yes, I’d be far away doing something else and being someone else.

 

As a small boy my mother would bring me to this spot, of course the Esplanade didn’t exist as such in those days.  There was an untidy bit of beach with a dirt track running alongside of it, rocks, stones, pebbles, the sea and the gulls.  We kids thought it a rare treat, the freshness of the sea breeze and the sparkle of the water broke the monotony of dust and heat we experienced all the other days of our lives.  Mum would sit with us while Dad did his business in the town, then we’d up on the cart and bump our way home, waving regretfully ‘Goodbye’ to the sea.

 

Even when I was little this place used to give me weird thoughts and I’d ask .. “Mum who am I? Why am I here?  Who are you?”  If she were serious she’d refer me to ‘God’ – now don’t get me wrong, it isn’t that I don’t believe – it’s just that I’ve never met him, face-to-face like, and been able to ask him my questions, so they’ve gone unanswered;  but if Mum were light-hearted she’d laugh, clap her hands together and exclaim telling me I’d turn out to be a professor in something or the other.  Lizzy, my sister, would squeeze my hand and say “Don’t worry Arnold, we’ll find out.”  Once I went all the way over to Europe to her gravestone, it was with a lot of others, I felt I owed it to her to see where she’d been put.  There was an archway over the entrance which said ‘Their name liveth forever’ and underneath ‘They made the supreme sacrifice’.  I was the only living being there.  I found the headstone ‘Elizabeth Andersen’ it said and in a loud voice I spoke, “Lizzie girl, “ I said, “Did you find out?  Can you tell me why?  It’s Arnold, your brother.”  If anyone had overheard me they’d have thought I was stark staring mad, I didn’t expect an answer only an indication – over all these year – nothing, nothing came.

 

When I was courting our Meg I would sit with her on this very bench, the palms and bushes had been planted only a short while and the whole place looked new and scrubbed.  Come to think of it, it was the Esplanade’s fault that we ever came together, I always pick up my ideas here.  After that decision the game called ‘life’ caught up with me and I had no time to sit and think of asking questions like why? – how? – for what purpose?  Every waking moment was filled with work and at night I was too exhausted to do anything but sleep.  I hadn’t grown up to be a professor as Mum prophesied, just an ordinary farmer, taking over Dad’s few acres, adding a few of my own.

 

The Esplanade was here all the time while my kids grew up, by then we had cars and trucks, Meg could come and go in and out of town as she pleased;  the ‘stead was no longer considered to be in the outback, it was only fifty minutes from shops and schools.  We saw more of other people than my folks ever did, we acquired neighbours on both sides.  Me?  I waited.  I waited for the day when my children would look up at me and ask “What’s the reason behind it all Dad?” and I would have to admit that although I played the game, although I worked and strived, lived and breathed, tried and failed and then tried again, I didn’t know what the purpose of it all was.  My biggest disappointment was that they never asked.

 

Meg, a stranger to me now, is an old, tired woman who’s only interest is her children and her children’s children.  I’m left on the outside because their problems are not my problems – anyway I’m not supposed to have any of those, I’m retired, I’m Dad, left here sitting in solitary splendour on the Esplanade, in the sun.  The cars flash by on the road behind my back, not one stops, I have as much contact with them as I do with the people on the pathway in front of me.  They, like the cars, go by, one after the other.  The odd one might say “How’re you doing mate?” in a friendly manner but they don’t stop for an answer, however I have found out something and this has made me content to sit and wait.  I’m an old man, I shouldn’t have too long to go.

 

The other day a young man with a priest’s collar, what we used to call a dog collar, sat down on my bench beside me.  We sat together in silence looking out at the calm sea, the boats, the hot sun, the blue sky, the shadows of the old trees.  I thought to myself ‘Now here is a man who must know all the answers in the world or he’d be ashamed to dress himself up like that and proclaim his faith.’  On the spur of the moment I found the courage and without preamble, mainly because I’d thought about it so much I was past the point of explaining anything to anyone, I asked:

“WHY?”

 

He must have known something was coming ‘cos he didn’t turn a hair but swung round and replied.

“To give us shade on a hot day, to give us somewhere green to sit in under this tireless sun, to allow us a place to rest close to the bustle of town, here we can be with our fellow man and contemplate God’s miracles.”

 

Not exactly the answer I’d expected:  I could have told him that it was the Shire that put the money down and built the Esplanade, that it was gardeners who had watered, weeded and worked on it, that it hadn’t even been there sixty years ago.  But I held my tongue, because he had given me an answer I could accept, the first one.

 

Sitting here, looking out at the sea, I know why the Esplanade was created and can even give God his due for part of it.  I know why this place is here, NOW I only have to find out why I’m here too?

 
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How to hook a reader, plot or character?

My dog got a lovely gift this Christmas, hope you do too! Happy Writing.

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Be it people or animals, if I suddenly care what happens to them I become interested in the story itself. It is arguably the key reason ‘Homeland’ spawned three series; the plot is terrorism the watchability is Carrie and Brody.

Plot v Character

Luminaries of the literary world such as Robert McKee, John Gardner, Stephen King and many others have fought over what is most important in writing, is it character or plot? It seems an unnecessary battle. Both are equally important and the genre chosen partly decides which if any has the upper hand. In a thriller, for example, the action may drive the story more than the characters, but it is the characters that really hook us, they are who we care about. It is trite but true that without the plot they would have no reason to be there.

Some Gentle Suggestions

Identify your main character in the story:

  • What does he or she look like?
  • How does he or she behave in different situations?
  • Are there any specific moral lines that he or she will cross?
  • If so, under what circumstances?
  • Are there any inner responses to different situations, i.e. mental reactions that could surprise us or underline just how that person ticks under different triggers?
  • If he or she has an antagonist, how do both characters differ and what traits are similar about them?
  • Does the way he or she speaks reveal social class, education, or how he or she sees life?
  • If told in the first person what does this say about how he or she interprets events, surroundings and people?
  • What is his or her main motivation, would this motivator appear as reasonable from the readers’ perspective as it does to the protagonist?
  • If his or her responses could appear unreasonable, what does this say about the main character (MC)?
  • Does the MC really understand what he or she is setting out to achieve?
  • How does the character change in response to the events in the story?
  • If the character does not change, how is he or she tested, and are you sure there has been no change?

John Gardner

‘In the final analysis, what counts is not the philosophy of the writer (that will reveal itself in any case) but the fortunes of the characters, how their principles of generosity or stubborn honesty or stinginess or cowardice help them or hurt them in specific situations. What counts is the characters’ story. A profound theme is of trifling importance if the characters knocked around by it are uninteresting, and brilliant technique is a nuisance if it pointlessly prevents us from seeing the characters and what they do.’

E. M. Forester

He described characters as ‘flat’ or ‘round’, depending on if the author had sketched or sculpted them with words. Sometimes we want to highlight just one thing and create a character as a vehicle for this; it is a way of narrating a message that we show rather than tell.

Katherine Anne Porter

‘By the time I write a story, my people are up and alive and walking around and taking things into their own hands.’

W.C. Fields.

‘A woman drove me to drink and I never even had the courtesy to thank her.’

In summary, study the protagonist, or any other figure, that you are creating. What makes this person different from the others in the story? The way characters speak can immediately reveal more facts, social class, education etc. and can reveal important things about their values, belief systems and behaviour.

Those of you who attended the last writers’ workshop remember you have until 2nd January to submit your short pieces, fiction or non fiction up to 2,000 words.

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Five Minutes of Flame. – When Nigella’s Twinkly Lights Go Out.

Nigella Lawson; as divisive as Marmite on a good day, but at the moment her once revered culinary abilities and the poetic descriptions of her creations are the last things on anybody’s lips.

So where did it all go wrong?  How could our love affair with the twinkly-lit muted scenes of conviviality turn sour overnight?

Was it because we discovered to our horror that Nigella is only as human as the rest of us?  Can we not forgive somebody who we have put so high upon a pedestal?  Not even at Christmas?  Not even when we have all – and frankly, we’d be lying through clenched teeth if we said otherwise – stolen some of her whimsically festive ideas?

Nigella hasn’t changed.  We have changed.  We’ve changed our minds.  We’re no longer willing to love her unconditionally.  She’s not this glossy, flawless creature after all.  It was all just a show for the cameras, an illusion.

We are the fools to have ever thought otherwise.

But I have an affinity with Nigella.  No, it’s not just because I happen to have her cookbook open on my wanabee kitchen island – sadly it’ll never rival hers – musing at the Baked Alaska, wondering where I can get myself one of those kitsch skier models that she has snowploughing down her meringue.  It’s because Nigella’s current debacle is actually a hammed up version of my past.  And I suspect a highly-dramatised version of many a person’s past, present, and sadly, future to come.

I used to live two lives, became quite a master of it.  We all have an actor inside as it turns out.

Nigella’s pristinely applied cosmetics; the pillar box red lippy and doe-eyes; that was me glammed up for a business trip.  Nigella’s flirtation at the camera to every male viewer in the country was my cry for salvation from the horrors that lay waiting for me at home.  I scoured the cities of Frankfurt, Bologna, Paris and Hong Kong for a Knight in Shining Armour instead.  Nigella’s – alleged – substance abuse?  That’s the metaphor for my cake addiction to numb the pain.  Not just cake.  Biscuits, chocolate, 500ml tubs of Haagen Daz, I wasn’t fussy.  Bolstering came in all shapes and sizes.  Okay, drugs might be the most harmful of those – if indeed Charles Saatchi’s allegations are founded – let us not forget the gas-lighting ways and the manipulative workings of a perpetrator’s mind.  The cocaine, the chocolate, the wine; ultimately they’re all a symbol for the same thing:  the outlet.  When you are alone in that dark place, in the dark days and nights of the soul, you will turn to anything for some bolstering.  It’s just a shame Nigella didn’t lean toward her delectable snow-flecked brownies.

Yet there’s a silver lining to be found in the cloud that hangs over Nigella:  she has finally, publicly, broken the taboo.  Domestic violence – and the ways we resort to dealing with it – goes on in every walk of life, every culture and every circle.  Now we have it in writing.

We’re a nation of celebrity junkies.  No not all of us, but those of us who are, are many.  We wouldn’t even abandon our favourite football team with the disdain we dish out freely to the likes of Nigella.  Does the underdog rule not apply to our kitchen heroines as well?  Is it – dare I say it – because she’s a woman?

‘She’s a toff.  She should know better.’

Since when did upper class status and money buy happiness?

‘She’s a celebrity.  She has to accept the intrusion of the paparazzi into her life, it goes with the territory.  She’s asked for it.’

Has she?  Is that why she frequently chose a seemingly discreet corner of a trusted restaurant to dine out as inconspicuously as possible?  Do we often see her splashed all over the front pages of The Sun with all the panache of a Z-lister wearing a belt and a see-through bra whilst snorting a line?  The last time I recall her being snapped up in private prior to her downfall, she was wearing a hideously unflattering all-in-one UV suit paddling on the Australian Gold Coast.  Hardly a contender for the me-me-me syndrome that plagues some of our ‘stars’.

What we give out we get boomeranged right back at us.  This is Newton’s Law.

The greatest gift we can give to ourselves then; is to quit deflecting from our own inadequacies.  Nigella’s situation is but a mirror of our own.  We have all had our Nigella moment.  It’s the very reason we act so strongly, so bitterly towards her.  Nigella is the icon of the shameful skeletons lurking in our own cupboards; the juicy stories we know would be aired if only we had our five minutes in the limelight, too.

And the greatest gift we can give to Nigella is the opportunity to dust herself down, pick herself up and get back to what she does best; giving us permission to indulge In glorious cake hot out the oven… and buying fairy lights.

Sam Curtis
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